Text 3

When Microsoft bought task management app Wunerlist and mobile calendarSunrise in 2015, it picked up two newcomers that were attracting considerablebuzz in Silicon Valley. Microsoft’ s own Office dominates the market for “productivity” software, but the start-ups represented a new wave of technologydesigned from the ground up for the smartphone world.

Both apps, however, were later scrapped, after Microsoft said it had usedtheir best features in its own products. Their teams of engineers stayed on,making them two of the many “acqui-hires” that the biggest companies have usedto feed their insatiable hunger for tech talent.

To Microsoft’s critics, the fates of Wunderlist and Sunrise are examples ofa remorseless drive by Big Tech to chew up any innovative companies that lie intheir path. “ They bought the seedlings and closed them down,” complained PaulArnold, a partner at San Francisco-based Switch Ventures, putting paid tobusinesses that might one day turn into competitors. Microsoft declined tocomment.

Like other start-up investors, Mr Arnold’s own business often depends onselling start-ups to larger tech companies, though he admits to mixed feelingsabout the result: “ I think these things are good for me, if I put my selfishhat on. But are they good for the American economy? I don’t know.”

The US Federal Trade Commission says it wants to find the answer to thatquestion. This week, it asked the five most valuable US tech companies forinformation about their many small acquisitions over the past decade. Althoughonly a research project at this stage, the request has raised the prospect ofregulators wading into early-stage tech markets that until now have been beyondtheir reach.

Given their combined market value of more than $5.5tm, rifling through suchsmall deals—many of them much less prominent than Wunderlist andSunrise—might seem beside the point. Between them, the five companies(Apple,Microsoft, Google, Amazon and Facebook) have spent an average of only $3.4bn ayear on sub-$1bn acquisitions over the past five years—a drop in the oceancompared with their massive financial reserves, and the more than $130bn ofventure capital that was invested in the US last year.

However, critics say that the big companies use such deals to buy theirmost threatening potential competitors before their businesses have a chance togain momentum, in some cases as part of a “buy and kill” tactic to simply closethem down.

31. What is true about Wuderlist and Sunrise after their acquisitions?

A. Their market values declined.

B. Their tech features improved.

C. Their engineers were retained.

D. Their products were re-priced.



【解析】根据题干关键信息“Wuderlist and Sunrise after theiracquisitions”可定位至原文第二段第二句。其中,“Their teams of engineers”指代上文的“Wuderlist andSunrise”,“stayed on”与选项C“were retained”为同义替换,所以选项C正确。

32. Microsoft’s critics believe that the big tech companies tend to___

A. ignore public options

B. treat new tech talent unfairly

C. exaggerate their product quality

D. eliminate their potential competitors



【解析】根据题干关键信息“Microsoft’s critics”及“the big techcompanies”可定位至原文原文第三段第一句,其中“to chew up any innovative companies that lie intheir path.”“粉碎任何挡在他们前进道路上的创新公司。”和选项D“eliminate their potentialcompetitors”“消除潜在的竞争对手”为同义替换。

33. Paul Arnold is concerned that small acquisitions might___

A. harm the national economy

B. worsen market competition

C. discourage start-up investors

D. weaken big tech companies



【解析】根据题干关键信息“Paul Arnold”及“smallacquisitions”可定位至原文第四段直接引语中的内容,该句用对比句式表明并购对于个人来说有益但从国家经济的角度效果尚不明确,可知作者暗含贬义。同时在下文,第五段作者写明并购原因,第六段作者写明并购后果“mightseem beside the point”“这似乎无关紧要”进一步明确作者对该实践持否定态度,因此选项A正确。

34. The US Federal Trade Commission intend to___

A. examine small acquisitions

B. limit Big Tech’s expansion

C. supervise start-ups operations

D. encourage research collaboration



【解析】根据题干关键信息“The US Federal TradeCommission”可定位至第五段第二句。该句说到“本周,该机构向美国市值最高的5家科技公司询问了它们在过去10年进行的许多小型收购的相关信息。”其中“ask…about…咨询”和选项A“examine检查”为同义替换。

35. For the five biggest tech companies, their small acquisition have___

A. brought little financial pressure

B. raised few management challenges

C. set an example for future deals

D. generate considerable profits



【解析】根据题干关键信息“the five biggest tech companies”可定位至原文第六段第二句,其中“a drop in theocean compared with their massive financial reserves”“与他们庞大的财政储备相比,这只是沧海一粟”与选项A“没有带来经济压力”一致

Text 4

We’ re fairly good at judging people based on first impression, thin slicesof experience ranging from a glimpse of a photo to five-minute interaction, anddeliberation can be not only extraneous but intrusive. In one study of theability she dubbed “thin slicing,” the late psychologist Nalini Ambady askedparticipants to watch silent 10-second video clips of professors and to rate theinstructor’s overall effectiveness. Their ratings correlated strongly withstudents’ end-of-semester ratings. Another set of participants had countbackward from 1,000 by nines as they watched the clips, occupying theirconscious working memory. Their ratings were just as accurate, demonstrating theintuitive nature of the social processing.

Critically, another group was asked to spend a minute writing down reasonsfor their judgment, before giving the rating. Accuracy dropped dramatically.Ambady suspected that deliberation focused them on vivid but misleading cues,such as certain gestures or utterances, rather than letting the complexinterplay of subtle signals form a holistic impression. She found similarinterference when participants watched 15-second clips of pairs of people andjudged whether they were strangers, friends, or dating partners.

Other research shows we’ re better at detecting deception an sexualorientation from thin slices when we rely on intuition instead of reflection.“It’ s as if you’ re driving a stick shift,”

says Judith Hall, a psychologist atNortheastern University, “and if you start thinking about it too much, you can’t remember what you’ re doing. But if you go on automatic pilot, you’ re fine.Much of our social life is like that.”

Thinking too much can also harm our ability to form preferences. Collegestudents’ ratings of strawberry jams and college course aligned better withexperts’ opinions when the students

weren’t asked to analyze their rationale.And people made car-buying decisions that were both objectively better and morepersonally satisfying when asked to focus on their feelings rather than ondetails, but only if the decision was complex-when they had a lot of informationto process.

Intuition’ s special powers are unleashed only in certain circumstances. Inone study, participants completed a battery of eight tasks, including four thattapped reflective thinking (discerning rule comprehending vocabulary) and fourthat tapped intuition an creativity (generating new products or figures ofspeech). Then the rated the degree to which they had used intuition ( “gutfeelings,”“hunches,”“my heart” ). Use of their gut hurt their performance on thefirst four tasks, as expected, and helped them on the rest. Sometimes the heartis smarter than the head.

36. Nalini Ambaby’s study deals with

A. instructor student interaction

B. the power of people’s memory

C. the reliability of first impressions

D. People’s ability to influence others



【解析】根据题干关键信息“Nalini Ambaby’s study”可定位至原文第一段第二句,同时该句“theability”指代上文“judging people based on first impression”“通过第一印象评判他人”因此选项C正确。

37. In Ambaby’s study, rating accuracy dropped when participants .

A. gave the rating in limited time

B. watched shorter video clips

C. focused on specific details

D. discussed with on another



【解析】根据题干关键信息“rating accuracy dropped whenparticipants”可定位至原文第二段二三两句,其中“deliberation focused them on vivid but misleadingcues 深思熟虑使他们专注于生动但具有误导性的线索”与选项C“specific details 具体细节”为同义替换。

38. Judith Hall mentions driving to mention that .

A. memory can be selective

B. reflection can be distracting

C. social skills must be cultivated

D. deception is difficult to detect



【解析】本题考查论证关系。根据题干关键信息“JudithHall”及“driving”,可定位至原文第三段第二句,该句作为论据出现在文章中,因此所证明论点应在其上文,“we rely on intuitioninstead of reflection. 我们依靠直觉而不是反应。”因此选项B正确。

39. When you are making complex decisions, it is advisable to .

A. follow your feelings

B. list your preferences

C. seek expert advice

D. collect enough data



【解析】根据题干关键信息“making complex decisions”“advisable”可定位至原文第四段末句,其中“focus ontheir feelings rather than on details 关注感受而非细节”为选项A“follow your feelings跟着感觉走”的同义替换。

40. What can we learn from the last paragraph?

A. Generating mew products takes time.

B. Intuition may affect reflective tasks.

C. Vocabulary comprehension needs creativity.

D. Objective thinking may boost intuitiveness.



【解析】本题考查段落重点信息。本段讲述一项研究,倒数第二句表明研究发现为重点信息,“Use of their gut hurt theirperformance on the first four tasks直觉的使用会影响他们在前四项任务中的表现”,其中,“gut”为原文注释“intuition”的同义替换,同时考查熟词僻义“hurt产生不良影响”,因此选项B为正确选项。

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